Sampling Design and Mosquito Trapping For Surveillance of Arboviral Activity.
Paternina, Luís E. | 2019-11-22
Mosquitoes are the most important vectors for arboviral human diseases across the world. Diseases such as Dengue Fever (DF), West Nile Virus (WNV), Yellow Fever (YF), Japanese Encephalitis (JE), Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis (VEE), and St. Louis Encephalitis (SLE), among others, have a deep impact in public health. Usually mosquitoes acquire the arboviral infection when they feed on viremic animals (birds or mammals), so their infection can be detected along the year or in short periods of time (seasons). All of
this depends on the frequency and seasonality of the encounters between viremic animals and vectors. With the convergence of several phenomena like the increasing traveling of human populations, globalization of economy and more recently the global warming, the introduction of nonendemic arbovirus into new areas has become the current scenario. As examples of this new social and environmental frame we can mention the outbreak of West Nile Virus in North America in the late 1990s and more recently the outbreaks of chikungunya and Zika virus in the Americas. The present chapter deals with one of the first
steps in the development of research studies and diagnosis programs, the surveillance of arboviruses in their vectors, the sampling design and mosquito trapping methods. The chapter also includes some important considerations and tips to be taken into account during the mosquito fieldwork.